Psychosocial characteristics of men and women as perpetrators of domestic violence. Danuta [email protected], Magdalena Rode and Maciej Januszek. Characteristics of female perpetrators of domestic violence in group versus perception of self as either victim or perpetrator in the men's. Health characteristics of female victims of domestic violence housed in a state through transformations in the relationship between victims and perpetrators.
Jealousy, trivial reasons and use of mind-altering substances are elements present in the violent daily life of the studied women.
The battered women's perception reflect these findings: Physical violence, prevalent in the study, causes numerous traumatic injuries that manifest themselves in the form of bruises, fractures, and organic disorders such as inaccurate pain and multiple complaints, but are rarely described in the records and seemingly little investigated during the initial care provided in the shelter 30 The experience of physical violence sometimes resonates with the experiences in sexual and reproductive health of these women.
Like in this study, Campbell et al. This study also reveals multiple and repeated violence, predominant among the sheltered women. Many women reported a history of sexual abuse since childhood or adolescence, like in the following speech: A study held in the northeast of Brazil found that The factors associated with this are the inefficient use of contraceptives, partner's disapproval attitudes and partner's refusal to use contraceptives, also constituting a form of violence, since women in violent relationships have no control over the sexual intercourse she has 33thus corroborating the present study, as can be seen in these statements: Moreover, violence triples the chance of pregnant women performing inadequate prenatal The women seen in the shelter reaffirm these findings: The increased use of tobacco and alcohol, found in the study, has also been presented as a direct consequence of the situation of violence experienced by these women 10 Thus, sheltering seems to be an effective measure to improve the issues related to mental and physical suffering of women victims of violence.
Thus, an specialized service and a well-trained, multidisciplinary, and inter-institutional team that guarantees care and proper arrangements are not enough 3143 ; it takes a reorganization of the services, with changes in the way assistance is provided, and greater involvement of the multidisciplinary team in the monitoring of women and in developing actions for violence prevention The lack of studies in the health area; losses of results due to changes that have occurred in women's admission forms in the shelter; the lack of standardization in filling the forms that contain numerous qualitative components; besides the absence of a healthcare professional during the initial assistance, and the very factors that attend the sectional studies are elements that contributed to the limitation of this study.
Conclusion A few changes have occurred in the health profile of women victims of domestic violence assisted by the State after the MPL. Relevant changes have occurred in the standard of care offered, such as increased investigation, development and registration of activities related to health; however, there is still scarce research on the physical and psychological repercussions of the aggressions suffered by the women.
It is suggested the inclusion of professionals in the staff of the shelter unit, who are able to contribute to the women's assistance, bearing in mind the physical effects of the assault and the empowerment of women about their health through health education and citizenship practices.
Domestic violence and perinatal mental disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med ; 10 5: Rev Saude Publica ; 46 2: Cien Saude Colet ; 18 3: Psicol Soc ; 20 spe: Porto M, Costa FP.
Lei Maria da Penha: Estud psicol Campinas ; 27 4: The theory of learned helplessness in passive women quickly becomes entwined with the commonly asked question of why does she stay? The result was a picture of masochistic and passive women who are to blame completely for their situation Bogard, Criticisms have suggested that learned helplessness cannot explain why so many women have been able to get away from their violent partners. The concept of learned helplessness also portrays women as passive rather than as active individuals seeking help.
In contrast to the learned helplessness model, Gondolf has developed a model suggesting that women are active survivors who try to escape violent relationships, but are often limited by the unavailability of resources.
In other words, women respond to abuse by attempting to seek help that does not exist rather than taking the blame as a victim; this model places blame on the social structure Gondolf, Aim This work was carried out to determine the psychosocial characteristics of women exposed to domestic violence.
Materials and methods This is an analytic cross-sectional study that was carried out to study the psychosocial characteristics of women exposed to domestic violence. Inclusion criteria All female participants ranging in age from 16 to 60 years, able to write and read, and presented to the Emergency Unit of Suez Canal University Hospital because of physical abuse of domestic origin were included in this study after obtaining their consent.
Selection of the control group The control group was selected from among women who were matched to the abused group for age, educational level, marital status, occupation, and income, and had apparently no history of domestic violence. Exclusion criteria Patients and control women were eligible for the study on exclusion of certain medical problems epilepsy, stroke, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and chronic liver cirrhosishead injuries, and history of psychotic disorder.
Also, illiterate patients were excluded because they would not be able to perform the psychological test. Sample size The sample size included all female patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, presented during the period of the study from April to Decemberand agreed to participate in this study.
In the study, psychological traits were evaluated using the MMPI personality inventory scale for 44 women who had experienced domestic violence and were compared with 22 women with no history of domestic violence.
Psychosocial characteristics of men and women as perpetrators of domestic violence
Results [Table 1] shows statistically nonsignificant differences between the abused group and the control group in age, residence, education, marital status, occupation, family size, and income. The mean age of the women was Discussion Frequency of abuse The present study shows that all abused women reported repetition of abuse. More than half of them were abused sporadically, a quarter were abused daily, and a fifth were abused weekly.
Causes of abusing The present study shows that the commonest causes for abusing were financial causes Other included kids hitting 4. The difference between two studies may due to difference in time as in our study financial causes was the first cause then refuse sexual relationship while the reverse is true in other study as more financial difficulties present nowadays in most Egyptian families to obtain basic life needs comparing with their financial difficulty since 7 years ago.
These results different from that of Tayseer et al; who studied domestic violence against women among rural families in Suez Governorate which revealed the commonest causes of violence against women was disobedience followed by outside home problems, refusing female intercourse, and finally the presence of addict husbands. This difference between studies may be because of differences in the setting as the sample in the Tayseer study included rural families; thus, the most common reason for abuse was disobedience, and community norms allow punishment of women who do not obey their husbands.
Types of abuse The present study shows that there was more than one type of abuse. These results are supported by Heise et al. The UNICEF also reported that physical violence is usually accompanied by psychological abuse and in many cases by sexual assault. A WHO multicountry study showed that in the majority of the countries studied, there was a considerable overlap between physical and sexual violence by intimate partners. Women were more likely to have sought help or left home if they had experienced severe physical violence.
This can be explained by the WHOwhich reported that domestic violence is considered a family matter and women sometimes view a certain amount of physical abuse as justified under certain conditions.
Cultural, ethnic, or religious backgrounds may influence a woman's response to abuse and her awareness of viable options. Reasons for not notifying authorities The current work highlights the main causes for not reporting abuse to the authorities.
- Characteristics of female perpetrators and victims of dating violence.
Women did not report violent incidents to the authority, which represents a major problem in the community. The most common cause of un-notification authorities benefit of kids fear from take them or abuse them This was similar to the Gondolf's study, which reported that fear of more abuse, emotional causes being in love, hope to change, and fear of being alonecultural stigma, fear for children will take children, better with both the parentsand economic reasons no place to stay and lack of economic resources were the most common causes for not reporting to authorities and continuation in a violence relationship.
The widespread acceptability of circumstances where wife beating is justified highlights the extent to which, in many countries, women appear to make distinctions in terms of the circumstances under which wife beating may or may not be 'acceptable'. In all countries, considerably more women accept wife-beating in the case of actual or suspected female infidelity, or for 'disobeying' a husband or a partner.
Qualitative research suggests that individuals make complex judgments about the acceptability of violence by considering who does what to whom, and for what reason Heise and Garcia-Moreno, Responses of victims other than notification of authorities In the present study, the common responses of abused women were temporarily leaving their homes The other common responses to violence were calling their neighbors, attempting to leave their homes at least once, and seeking help from family members either their own or their spouse's Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, The WHO multicountry study found that women who had been physically abused by their partner were under circumstances ranging from not completing the housework adequately, refusal to have sex, disobeying her husband, or being unfaithful.
The study also found that when women who had not sought help from any of the services mentioned were asked why this was the case, the most common responses were either that the women considered the violence normal or not serious or because they feared the consequences, either for their own safety, or that they would lose their children, or that they would bring shame to their families.
Other reasons included beliefs about the inadequacy of the likely response, in particular, that they would not be believed or that it would not help WHO, Rubenstein reported that abused women tend to remain in abusive relationships for a number of reasons: Psychological traits of studied groups according to MMPI A comparison between the mean scores of the abused group and the mean scores of the control group showed an increase in scores in scale 2 depressionwhich is similar to the result of Campbellwho found that intimate partner violence is associated with high rates of depression.
These results also in agreement with Goldingwho found that the association between domestic violence and depression reflects a causal link. Early, exposure to violence, domestic violence, attachment representations and marital adjustment.Stand up to Domestic Violence
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Health characteristics of female victims of domestic violence housed in a state care shelter
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