How the Partition of India happened – and why its effects are still felt today
controversial issues in Pakistan; identify their own position on these issues, and . relationships between the past and present and to understand changes taking . and then change or extend them further according to students' level of knowledge . Pakistan's boundary with Afghanistan is about kilometres long. Pakistan (Urdu: پاکِستان ), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اِسلامی جمہوریہ .. Geologically, Pakistan is located in the Indus–Tsangpo Suture Zone and In the xeric regions of Balochistan, date palm and Ephedra are common. to jihad—to an Islamic revolution transcending national boundaries, was such. Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous The Indus Valley Civilization, dating to BCE, was first discovered at Harappa. Punjab Several UNESCO World Heritage Sites are located in Punjab, including the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, the archeological.
In that same year, 9, Pakistanis sought refuge in Canadaand 8, in Germany. Inthere were 8, asylum seekers in Pakistan, mainly from Afghanistan 7,and Nigeria. InPakistan dropped from being the main country of asylum at the beginning of the year to the rank of second by the end of the year. Inthe net migration rate was The government views the migration levels as satisfactory. Other major ethnic groups include the Sindhi, Pathan, Baloch, and Muhajirs immigrants from India and their descendants.
The Rajputs and the Jats are the most numerous of the Punjabi castes. In the area of the delta and the lower course of the Indus River are Sindhi peasant tribesmen. In the north and northwest are the hardy, warlike nomadic and seminomadic Pathans. The Balochi live in the vast western section of Pakistan and are divided into 12 major tribes, some of them purportedly of Dravidian origin. Native speakers of Urdu, the Muhajirs are refugees, or descendants of refugees, from pre-partition India.
They are well represented in the cities. During the Mughal or Mogul period, a fusion of local dialects and Persian produced Urdu, a "language of the camp" zaban-i-urdu. Although regional languages and dialects persist, Urdu is the official language of Pakistan; while it is spoken by only a minority, it is understood everywhere except in the rural or mountainous areas on the western frontier.
English also claims official status and is the lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries. Ahmadis consider themselves Muslims but they do not accept Muhammad as the last prophet; as such, they are not accepted as orthodox by other Muslim groups and were officially declared non-Muslims by the government in Zikris form another branch of people who consider themselves Muslim but are rejected by Sunni leaders because they practice ceremonies that are not common to all of Islam.
Roman Catholics were the next largest group of Christians. Buddhists, Parsis, Sikhs, and Baha'is were also represented.
Though the constitution provides for religious freedom, the government has placed restrictions on a number of religious groups.
Islam is the state religion and actions or speech contrary or derogatory to Islam are illegal. There have been many cases of trials, imprisonment, and even death sentences based on the violation of these "blasphemy laws.
The Ahmadis, as an unrecognized offshoot of Islam, face a particular level of discrimination. They are prohibited by law from referring to themselves as Muslims or posing as Muslims in anyway. They are also not allowed to hold public assemblies or conferences. The constitution states that the president and the prime minister must be Muslim and all other government officials swear an oath to uphold the Islamic ideology of the state. InPakistan Railways operated 8, km 5, mi of broad and narrow gauge track.
Of that total, broad gauge lines predominate, with 7, km 4, miof which km mi are electrified. InPakistan's road system totaledkmmi of roads, of whichkm 87, mi were paved, including km mi of expressways. Road traffic drives on the left.
Pakistan - Location, size, and extent
There werepassenger cars andcommercial vehicles in use in Pakistan had an estimated airports in As ofa total of 91 had paved runways, and there were also 18 heliports. HISTORY The ruins of ancient civilizations at Mohenjodaro and at Harappa in the southern Indus Valley testify to the existence of an advanced urban civilization that flourished in what is now Pakistan in the second half of the third millennium bc during the same period as the major riverain civilizations in Mesopotamia and Persia.
Although overwhelmed from bc onward by large migrations of nomadic Indo-European-speaking Aryans from the Caucasus region, vestiges of this civilization continue to exist not only in present-day Pakistan but also in the Indic culture that evolved from interaction of the Aryans and others in the years following.
Among the latter were Persians in bc, Greeks under Alexander the Great in bc, and—after ad —Arabs, Afghans, TurksPersians, Mongols Mughalsand Europeans, the last of whom first arrived by sea beginning in ad Islam, now the dominant cultural influence in Pakistan, arrived with Arab traders in the 8th century ad. Successive overland waves of Muslims followed, culminating in the ascendancy of the Mughals in most of the subcontinent.
Led initially by Babur, a grandson of Genghis Khanthe Mughal empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries and remained in nominal control until well after the British East India Company came to dominate the region in the early 18th century.
Effective British governance of the areas that now make up Pakistan was not consolidated until well into the second half of the 19th century. Nationalism and the Rise of the Muslim League In andwhile the British began to take steps to expand local self-rule, mass movements challenging colonial authority began to rise.
Punjab, Pakistan - Wikipedia
The largest of these movements was spearheaded by the Indian National Congressfounded in as an Anglophile society. Congress began to attract wide support after with one of its key leaders, Mohandas K. Its leadership included Muslims but was in many ways Hindu dominant.
As a result, Muslims worried that their needs would be forgotten and formed an All-India Muslim League to look after their interests. National and provincial elections held under the Government of India Act of confirmed many Muslims in this view by showing the power the majority Hindu population could wield at the ballot box. Sentiment among Muslims began to coalesce around the "two-nation" theory propounded by the poet Iqbal, which declared that Muslims and Hindus were separate nations and that Muslims required creation of an independent Islamic state for their protection and fulfillment.
The Muslim League endorsed the project at Lahore in Jinnah's quest succeeded on 14 August when British India was divided into the two self-governing dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter created by combining contiguous, Muslim-majority districts in British India, the former consisting of the remainder.
Climate and Vegetation
Partition occasioned a mass movement of Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs who found themselves on the "wrong" side of new international boundaries; more than 20 million people moved, and up to three million of these were killed. The new Pakistan was a state divided into two wings, East Pakistan with 42 million people crowded mainly into what had been the eastern half of Bengal province and West Pakistan with 34 million in a much larger territory that included the provinces of Baluchistan, Sindthe Northwest Frontier, and western Punjab.
In between, the wings were separated by km miles of an independent, mainly Hindu, India professing secularism for its large Muslim, Christian, and Sikh minorities. Jinnah's death in and the assassination in of Liaquat Ali Khanits first prime minister, were major setbacks, and political stability proved elusive, with frequent recourse to proclamations of martial law and states of emergency in the years following Complicating their task were the security concerns that Pakistan's new leaders had regarding India in the aftermath of the bitterness of partition and a still-unresolved dispute over the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.
In the early s, Pakistan sought security in relationships external to the subcontinent, with the Islamic world and with the United States. East—West Divide Pakistan also faced the daunting challenging of trying to bridge a profound political and ethnic gap that existed between its west and east wings. The Bengali east wing was economically more important, but political power rested in the Sindhi and Punjabi factions of the west wing.
Inthe Army chief, Gen. Muhammad Ayub Khan, seized control of Pakistan, imposing martial law and banning all political activity for several years. Ayub later dissolved provincial boundaries in the west wing, converting it to "one unit," to balance East Pakistan.
Each "unit" had a single provincial government and equal strength in an indirectly elected national legislature; the effect was to deny East Pakistan its population advantage, as well as its ability, as the largest province, to play provincial politics in the west wing. Ayub's efforts failed to establish stability or satisfy the demands for restoration of parliamentary democracy.
Weakened by his abortive military adventure against India in September and amid rising political strife in both wings inAyub was eventually forced from office. General Muhammad Yayha Khan, also opposed to greater autonomy for the east wing, assumed the presidency in Again martial law was imposed and political activity suspended.
Yahya's attempt to restore popular government in the general elections of failed when the popular verdict supported those calling for greater autonomy for East Pakistan. The southern borders are far less contentious than those in northern Pakistan Kashmir. The Thar Desert in the province of Sindh is separated in the south from the salt flats of the Rann of Kachchh Kutch by a boundary that was first delineated in — After independence and dissolution of Empire, Independent and free Pakistan contested the southern boundary of Sindh, and a succession of border incidents resulted.
They were less dangerous and less widespread, however, than the conflict that erupted in Kashmir in the Indo-Pakistani War of August started with this decisive core of issues.
These southern hostilities were ended by British mediation during Harold Wilson's era, and both sides accepted the award of the Indo-Pakistan Western Boundary Case Tribunal designated by the UN secretary general himself. The tribunal made its award on February 19, ; delimiting a line of kilometers that was later demarcated by joint survey teams, Of its original claim of some 9, square kilometers, Pakistan was awarded only about square kilometers.
The Indo-Greeks were involved with local faiths, particularly with Buddhism, but also with Hinduism'. Buddhism flourished under the Indo-Greek kings, and their rule, especially that of Menanderhas been remembered as benevolent. Maues first conquered Gandhara and Taxila around 80 BCE, but his kingdom disintegrated after his death.
The Indo-Scythians ultimately established a kingdom in the northwest south Asia, based near Taxila, with two great Satraps, one in Mathura in the east, and one in Surastrene Gujarat in the southwest. The Indo-Scythians seem to have been followers of Buddhism, and many of their practices apparently continued those of the Indo-Greeks. Gondopharesfounder of Indo Parthia kingdom, was a ruler of Seistan in what is today eastern Iran, probably a vassal or relative of the Apracarajas. Around 20—10 BCE, he made conquests in the former Indo-Scythian kingdom, perhaps after the death of the important ruler Azes.
Gondophares became the ruler of areas comprising Arachosia, Seistan, Sindh, Punjab, and the Kabul valley. The temple of JandialTaxila is usually interpreted as a Zoroastrian fire temple from the period of the Indo-Parthians.
Arrival of Islam[ edit ] Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. The Umayyad Caliphate was the second Arab, Islamic caliphate established after the death of Muhammad.
It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shamsthe great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the city of Meccatheir capital was Damascus.
Muhammad bin Qasim was the first to bring message of Islam to the population of Punjab. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. The area subsequently came under various other Muslim rulers until finally becoming part of the Mughal Empire in Mughal Empire[ edit ] The Punjab region rose to significance in the Hindustani empire when Lahore became a seat for royal family in the legacy of which is seen today in its rich display of Mughal architecture.
The Mughals controlled the region from until around and implemented building projects such as the Shalimar Gardens  and the Badshahi Mosqueboth situated in Lahore. Padshah emperor Akbar established two of his original twelve subahs imperial top-level provinces in Punjab: