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The lauacra in the inscription could refer to the heated rooms of the baths that fell out of use, thus being replaced by new camoeram cum suspensuris, or to the hot pools that were restored when the baths received a new heated sector.
In any case, the comparison of the epigraphic and the archaeological evidence demonstrates that the lauacrum must have been a heated part of the bath house, either the heated sector as a whole or only the hot pools. Religious interpretations The written evidence shows a third important interpretation of the word lauacrum.
Already in the work of Tertullian, the term appears in a strictly religious context of holy washing or baptism. Furthermore, the earlier attestations in Aulus Gellius are also related to baths and not to ritual washing. But if the word also had a connotation of — or maybe even had its origin in — a small pool, then it could very well be that in a Christian context it originally meant the baptismal font.
The literary and epigraphic evidence, however, is problematic. In fact, attestations of baptismal fonts in literature are rare. The texts mention baptism as an act instead. The aforementioned passage in which Tertullian compares Jewish bathing habits with Christian baptism is a rare example of the term lauacrum denoting the actual baptismal font.
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What is even more remarkable, is that the other Latin word for a font, baptisterium, was originally a term to describe a pool in a bath house. The fact that the terms for pool were used to describe a font is not surprising, as the early baptismal font resembled, and was undoubtedly inspired by, the pools of the baths.
In a passage by Socrates Scholasticus lived ca. ADwe learn that the followers of John Chrysostom gathered in a bath house on Easter-day, the traditional moment for baptism. Even if lauacrum does not seem to have had a religious origin, the adaption of the word by Christianity must certainly have contributed to its spread and acceptance.
Conclusions The literary and epigraphic attestations of the word lauacrum have made clear that this word was not just another Latin term for bath house or bath room. It only seems to appear from the 2nd c. AD, yet the reasons for its introduction remain obscure. The fact that the word stems from a Latin verb lauare and not from a Greek term, as was the case with balneum or thermae, may point to a conservative linguistic reaction, i.
However, the precedent of thermae, a term that seems to have been introduced to designate a change in bathing architecture and subsequent habitspushes us to investigate whether a similar process was at work for the introduction of lauacrum. When looking at the material evidence of the period in question, we can observe that smallsized pools for individual use were introduced to complement the large communal pools. Several explanations have been proposed for this new trend, including a Christian prudishness which wished to avoid close bodily contact, a religious use for baptism and initiation ritesan exclusive use by the elite, or a medical use.
Combining the introduction of the new term lauacrum with the introduction of these small pools, we could argue that both introductions were the results of a change in bathing habits. This change was, however, not an introduction of a new custom, but rather a reinvention of an existing one.
Until the end of the 1st c. AD, the act of washing oneself before entering a communal pool was carried out at the labrum. When the labrum disappeared, the function may well have been assumed by small individual pools.
The introduction of the word lauacrum, etymologically linked to lauare and la ua brum, may also have been a reflection of this changed bathing habit. It is however difficult to link the archaeological remains of the small pools to the literary and epigraphic evidence of the term lauacrum.
Literary evidence as well as juridical sources confirm that lauacrum was often used to denote a specific part of a building, more specifically water-related amenities. The early baptismal fonts are similar to the small individual pools found in bath houses and the terminology to denote these fonts was almost exclusively copied from words denoting pools -including baptisterium, alueus, piscina and possibly also lauacrum. The three apparitores in each category by both the processes of lectio and sublectio receive a locus.
Some existing holders of such a locus in each category may not legally be replaced by lectio or sublectio in this way per leges plebeive scita Lectio and sublectio make a viator or a praeco members of a decuria, which has certain rights established by law iuus lexque I II 6.Training to be a Latina - Lele Pons, Juanpa Zurita & Anwar Jibawi
One of these rights is that each viator or praeco may vicarium dare subdere in decuria. Quaestors are required to accept such vicarii II Decuria by decuria the names of those who are chosen are published at the time of their selection on tablets in the porch of the temple of Saturn II A different decuria has the job of serving apparere oportet the quaestors at the Aerarium in each year I These annual decuriae may be known in advance: The process of lectio sublectio also makes the beneficiary a member of an ordo I Each quaestor quaestor queiquomque erit adopts habere sumere a viator and a praeco from the trio selected by 1 a II The consuls of the year are to choose an extra viator and praeco for each of the annual decuriae in each category for the next 3 years therefore 6 appointmentsbut there is to be no difference in the legal or institutional position of those who are chosen I The names of the beneficiaries of this consular selection are to be added to the published record of decuria-membership after the last name on each decuria list II The quaestors who have previously been responsible for choosing three apparitores in each category are now to choose four instead, but there is to be no difference in the legal or institutional position of those who are chosen II