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SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online . Later, Laborel and Kempf () described the Brazilian vermetid reefs, recorded Grande Bay (on the southernmost coast of Rio de Janeiro State) dating from the end . 17, Ilha do Capítulo, 22°58'46"S/44°20'" W, (), Very-sheltered .. Sci Mar 68(1 ): Created by João Emanuel Carneiro. With Adriana Esteves, Débora Falabella, Murilo Benício, Marcello Novaes. A young girl who had her life ruined by an. Lo Que La Vida Me Robo - Alejandro Reunites With His Mother - 22 May Please enjoy the highlights of the capitulo and discuss or add any . It's a bad sign if you are dating a guy and you find out he loathes his mother!! .. Protected by Copyscape Online Plagiarism Finder Avenida Brasil.
When interactions were not significant, the average values of both hybrids were unfolded on sowing dates. Using data from the five agricultural years, yield was correlated with weight of thousand achenes, capitulum diameter, maximum LAI and plant height.
Furthermore, the mean and standard deviation were obtained for growth variables and sowing dates. There was no significant difference between the two hybrids in most sowing dates. However, differences were recorded in yield and growth variables among sowing dates Table 1 and 2. The lowest yield was found in sowings of December, January and February, which did not differ for both hybrids. Similar differences were found for weight of thousand achenes and capitulum diameter. The growth characteristics as maximum LAI and plant height were significantly lower in February Table 2.
Lower yields were related with reduced rainfall in October, November, December and January sowing dates Table 3. High disease severity was also recorded in January and February sowing dates, as was previously reported by Loose et al.
Both high disease severity and low maximum LAI in February, contributed to reduced yield.
In this growing period, plants were damaged by heavy precipitation of hail in January Plants sown in October were damaged by hail at the R6 stage and those sown in November at the R1 stage, affecting negatively the weight of thousand achenes of the two hibrids. The LAI and the maximum height of plants were reduced in both hybrids Table 2.
According to Muro et al. Similar differences were recorded for the capitulum diameter, confirming the relationship with yield reported by Alkio et al. The weight of thousand achenes was higher in the November and December sowing dates for both hybrids, without relationship with yield. Maximum values of LAI and height of plants were ovserved for the hybrid Hl in December and January sowing dates, in a similar way of yield Table 2.
As a consequence, plant emergence was reduced by water excess in the soil. In October and November sowing dates, yield was also reduced due to soil water excess Grassini et al.
Environmental growing conditions of rainfall and solar radiation were better for plants of this sowing date Table 3 and lower the severity of diseases, which explains this result. Moreover, the September sowing date had the highest weight of thousand achenes, while the capitulum diameter was higher in January and February, which resulted in high yield, even with the smaller weight of thousand achenes.
Regarding the growth characteristics, November presented the lower values?? Plants sown in November suffered from water deficit which reduced growth and yield Karam et al. Positive relationships were found among yield and capitulum diameter, weight of thousand achenes, maximum LAI and height of plants, with coefficient of determination R2 of 0.
The capitulum diameter presents the highest correlation coefficient, indicating its direct and positive effect on the achenes production, with high genetic correlation Kumari et al. Therefore, this feature is important for selection of genotypes, as capitulum of larger size tend to have a higher proportion of large and heavier achenes Alkio et al. Other variables also affect yield, albeit with less significance.
An overview of the results of five years of experiments can be seen in Figure 2. The weight of thousand achenes also shows a slight downward trend in later sowing dates Figure 2B. A reducing trend has been reported by Loose et al.
Such data is confirmed by present results. In turn, the capitulum diameter showed no significant tendency Figure 2C. The overall view of the present results shows a reduction of yield with delayed sowing dates. Moreover, the September sowing date had the highest average yield, capitulum diameter and weight of thousand achenes, being the best sowing period.
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Nevertheless, low plant height was recorded at the November sowing date and the standard deviation was high Figure 2E. The high standard deviation of this sowing date might be explained by the high temporal variability of environmental conditions in this period, especially water excess or deficit.
The best sowing period to reach higher yield of the sunflower crop in Santa Maria is early September. The capitulum diameter has higher correlation with yield than weight of thousand achenes, maximum leaf area index and plant height. Intercepted solar radiation during seed filling determines sunflower weight per seed and oil concentration.
Yield and growth characteristics of sunflower sown from August to February in Santa Maria, RS
Applying thermal time scales to sunflower development. Effect of source—sink ratio on seed set and filling in sunflower Helianthus annuus L. Response of sunflower Helianthus annuus L. It is likely that Ilha Grande Bay has some peculiar characteristics, still not fully evaluated, that affect the growth of P. In Ilha Grande Bay, P. These reefs are probably growing in seawater with high organic matter and turbidity. The occurrence of P. On the other hand, Calvo et al.
The wave exposure of the rocky shores seems not to be a limiting factor for the presence of P. The lack of significant correlations between the wave fetch and the density or weight of P. Laborelfor instance, concluded that P. However, Azzopardi and Schembriwho analyzed the influence of wave exposure, using the method of Thomason the abundance of Dendropoma petraeum Monterosato, from the Maltese Islands Mediterranean Seafound a significant positive correlation between the population density of juveniles and the exposure index.
The lack of a significant correlation between the wave fetch and the belt width of the P. However, Franzitta et al. The index used in the present study may be less sensitive at a small scale.
Further, experimental studies are needed to answer the questions about the influence of wave exposure on the abundance of vermetids. In Ilha Grande Bay, steeper slopes of the rocky shore were related to decreasing belt widths of P. In the Mediterranean Sea, athough the geological substrata are different from Ilha Grande Bay, slope also plays a role in determining the size and shape of bioconstructions Azzopardi and SchembriChemello and SilenziBalistreri et al.
Curiously, Laborel and Kempf stated that the Brazilian vermetids seemed to be indifferent to the slope of the substratum. The vertical displacement of the vermetid reefs on the rocky shores of this bay agrees with the observations of Laborel and Kempf and Laborelwho described these reefs for the intertidal zone, between the Tetraclita and Sargassum belts.
Because of the dense and complex aggregations of their tubes in a multi-layer structure, P. Adams, Breves-Ramos et al. New studies should examine the importance of P. The extremely high densities of P. In other Brazilian regions, other vermetid species do not reach densities as high as those recorded for P.
Although effective for counting living individuals, the photoquadrat technique may underestimate values because of epibionts present and also because other live and dead vermetid individuals may be located below the upper layer of the reefs. Since our study was a baseline, the weight was included as an additional variable for estimating the abundance of vermetid reefs through a three-dimensional representation of growth. On the other hand, for monitoring studies we recommend that destructive samplings not be conducted.
Furthermore, vermetid reefs should be protected by specific regional Brazilian laws and regulations.
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The disappearance of P. Since vermetids are usually taken as a potential bioindicator for global changes, particularly rising sea levels, surface seawater temperatures Silenzi et al. Reid for the English revision and the anonymous reviewers for critically reviewing and contributing to the manuscript.
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Rec Trav St Mar Endoume 27 On a remarkable bar of sandstone off Pernambuco, on the coast of Brazil. Do small marinas drive habitat specific impacts? A case study from Mediterranean Sea. Mar Pollut Bull