Mitla - Wikipedia
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Inside they are decorated with mosaics. One of the tombs has an entrance that is divided by a thick column.
This column is popularly known as the "Columna de la Vida" Column of Life. According to legend, one is supposed to wrap one's arms around the column, and the space remaining between the hands indicate the amount of life the individual has left. The entrance room contains immense columns which support the roof. The north wall has a small opening facing the patio, supposedly for crossing into the afterlife. It measures by 21 feet The north and east buildings of the group have elaborate tombs where high priests and Zapotec rulers were buried.
In front of the stairs of the north building is a cross-shaped tomb with an antechamber. The ceiling has large beams made of stone and the walls are decorated with tablets and stone fretwork.
The east building is characterized by a monolithic stone column which supports the roof.
The pieces were set against a stucco background painted red. These shelters are palm thatched roofs supported by wooden beams and columns, and are intended to mimic roofs that were common in the Mesoamerican period.
The last was the only one of its kind built in the valley during the colonial period. The entry on the list includes the Mitla ruins along with the Tree of Tule and nearby caves which have paintings and show human habitation for 80, years.
Authorities who administer the site state that tourism is rising. Most visitors are Mexicans who visit on weekends from Veracruz and Puebla states, and most foreigners who visit are European. On average people per day visit the site. Many escaped slaves and their descendents made their way to Amuzgo territory in the Costa Chica region, which had the effect of pushing the remaining Amuzgo away from the coast. The town of Czoyoapan was supposedly founded by Amuzgos who moved here from an area near San Nicolas, Guerrero, which became dominated by Afro-Mexicans.
It is not known when it was founded by it appears in records as early as Inthe Amuzgo began to fight to take back control resulting in the establishment of the Xochistlahuaca ejido in with 6, hectares. This ejido became the municipality of Xochistlahuaca in Inthe ejido was granted an additional 1, hectares of land for the growing population. This has even included permanent migration down into the Cuajinicuilapa area near the coast where Amuzgos were pushed out of in the pre-Hispanic and colonial periods.
These varieties are very similar, but there is a significant difference between western varieties Northern and Southern and eastern varieties Upper Eastern and Lower Easternas revealed by recorded text testing done in the s. They are also taught to read and write in the Amuzgo language. In areas where the primary schools do not have primary schools with Amuzgo-speaking teachers, loss of Amuzgo among children and problems with academic development do occur.
Weddings are elaborate affaires with food, alcohol and music. The family that proposes sets the wedding date and the pair meet at that time, as the families work to cement economic and social ties. The groom is expected to provide various gifts such as corn, beans, chili peppers, firewood, chocolate and money to make the bride's huipil.
If the bride is a virgin the consummation of the wedding is celebrated with fireworks. If not, there is some tension. Boys follow their fathers into the fields when they are small and have most of the agricultural knowledge they need by the time they are twelve.
Girls stay at home and learn the domestic work of their mothers, including weaving. Men generally have the economic and social power in communities, including the right to make most of the familial decisions.
Men sell the agricultural products and in the past, sold women's textiles, but this has changed. Most children attend school at least to the primary level and a number to the secondary level. Those who which to continue and have the resources go to Ometepec or Chilpancingo.
Water figure prominently in folklore and non-Catholic rites as it is essential for survival in the mountains. For example, the beginning of the rainy season is marked by the feast of Saint Mark on 25 April. The date is also known as the "petition for thunder" for rains that will benefit the crops. On this date, chickens are sacrificed over a set of rocks which are said to mythically represent thunder and lightning. The feast of the Archangel Michael on 29 September marks the end of the rainy season as well as the harvest.
There is animistic belief in spirits of the mountains, earth, corn, animals and other elements of nature. While serious cases are sent to medical facilities in large communities such as Putla and Pinotepa Nacional, most Amuzgos prefer to consult traditional healers.
Very minor ailments such as stomach pain, colds, flu etc. The rise of various political parties in Guerrero and the arrival of different forms of Christianity have caused social upheaval among the Amuzgos.
In addition, position in the formal government are often in dispute between the Amuzgos and the mestizos.
Puebla - Wikipedia
Most of these are related to the performance of various religious functions such as sponsoring a festival. Its board has terms of three years. Ina group of Amuzgos took over the municipal palace to protest irregularities in the government.
One of these is dedicated to the archeological pieces found in the region. The other is dedicated to the region's handcrafts. One important aspect of this work is related to traditional textiles. These textiles are done on backstrap looms and have a repertoire of various designs which have a set of meanings referred to as a "graphic language.
Cacao is usually consumed as a hot chocolate beverage for special occasions. Corn is often prepared in the form of tamaleswith different flavors such as sweet corn, chicken, with freshwater shrimp and more. One traditional dish is called "cabeza de viejo" or "old man's head" which consists of meat with herbs which are then steamed.
Other dishes include barbacoa made with beef or goat. They make a kind of tortilla sweetened with piloncillo called ticasos, as well as candies from a kind of yam and from squash. It has serious economic and social problems including access to basic services, with many homes lacking electricity, running water and drainage.
Amuzgos - Wikipedia
Education levels are very low with high levels of illiteracy, but are relatively equal between men and women. In towns, houses vary in construction material and style. The number of rooms varies from one to several.
Furniture depends on family income. Most weaving is done in the patio area because of the hot climate. Most of these do not have running water, drainage or electricity. Generally, these families have more than one house, each having a specific function. The kitchen areas have a fireplace, table and chairs and places to store dishes and cooking utensils.